About seven days after conception, something remarkable occurs in the clump of cells that will eventually become a new human being. They start to specialize. They take on characteristics that begin to hint at their ultimate fate as part of the skin, brain, muscle or any of the roughly 200 cell types that exist in people, and they start to form distinct layers.
Although scientists have studied this process in animals, and have tried to coax human embryonic stem cells into taking shape by flooding them with chemical signals, until now the process has not been successfully replicated in the lab. But researchers led by Ali Brivanlou, Robert and Harriet Heilbrunn Professor and head of the Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology and Molecular Embryology at The Rockefeller University, have done it, and it turns out that the missing ingredient is geometrical, not chemical.
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Please watch this. PLEASE.
CEO of the largest foodstuff company in the world, Nestle, declares water is not a human right and should be privatized. This man has *huge power* in the world and this platform is absolutely TERRIFYING for the future. OUR future. YOURS. MINE. Say no to Nestle!
PLEASE REBLOG people need to know their future access to healthy water may not be in jeopardy today but will almost definitely be in the future.
Why some chimpanzees are smarter than others
Is it nature? Is it nurture? Scientists think intelligence in chimps may mostly be nature, and it may help gain insight into human intelligence as well.
Researchers measured how well 99 captive chimpanzees performed on a series of cognitive tests, finding that genes determined as much as 50 percent of the animals’ performance…
In the new study, Hopkins and his colleagues gave chimpanzees at the Yerkes Primate Center, in Atlanta, a battery of cognitive tests adapted from ones developed by German researchers for comparing humans and great apes. The tests measured a range of abilities in physical cognition, such as the ability to discriminate quantity, spatial memory and tool use. The tests also examined aspects of social cognition, such as communication ability….
In addition, neither the sex of the animals nor their rearing history (whether they were raised by their mother or by humans) seemed to affect cognitive performance, the researchers found…
A new scientific report from the University of Vermont, which gathers together several decades of research, shows that the great whales which nearly became extinct in the 20th century – and are now recovering in number due to the 1983 ban on whaling – may be the enablers of massive carbon sinks via their prodigious production of faeces.
Not only do the nutrients in whale poo feed other organisms, from phytoplankton upwards – and thereby absorb the carbon we humans are pumping into the atmosphere – even in death the sinking bodies of these massive animals create new resources on the sea bed, where entire species exist solely to graze on rotting whale. There’s an additional and direct benefit for humans, too. Contrary to the suspicions of fishermen that whales take their catch, cetacean recovery could “lead to higher rates of productivity in locations where whales aggregate to feed and give birth”. Their fertilizing faeces here, too, would encourage phytoplankton which in turn would encourage healthier fisheries.
A small, flowering plant called Arabidopsis thaliana can hear the vibrations that caterpillars trigger when they chew on its leaves. According to a new study, the plants can hear danger loud and clear, and they respond by launching a chemical defense.
From anecdotes and previous studies, we know that plants respond to wind, touch, and acoustic energy. “The field is somewhat haunted by its history of playing music to plants. That sort of stimulus is so divorced from the natural ecology of plants that it’s very difficult to interpret any plant responses,” says Rex Cocroft from the University of Missouri, Columbia. “We’re trying to think about the plant’s acoustical environment and what it might be listening for.”
In this first example of plants responding to ecologically relevant vibrational sounds (i.e. predation), Cocroft and Mizzou’s Heidi Appel combined audio and chemical analyses. First, they placed a tiny piece of reflective tape on a leaf; that way, using a laser beam, they can measure the leaf’s movements as the caterpillar munches.
After they recorded the seemingly inaudible vibrational sounds of caterpillar chewing, they played the recordings back to one set of Arabidopsis plants, while silence was played to another set. To mimic the acoustic signature of feeding, they used piezoelectric actuators, tiny speakers that play vibrations instead of airborne sound. “It’s a delicate process to vibrate leaves the way a caterpillar does while feeding, because the leaf surface is only vibrated up and down by about 1/10,000 of an inch,” Cocroft explains in an university blog post. “But we can attach an actuator to the leaf with wax and very precisely play back a segment of caterpillar feeding to recreate a typical 2-hour feeding session.”
Then, they let cabbage butterfly caterpillars eat about a third of three leaves on each plant from both sets. They gave the plants 24 to 48 hours to respond to the attack, after which the leaves were harvested. “We looked at glucosinolates that make mustards spicy and have anticancer properties and anthocyanins that give red wine its color and provide some of the health benefits to chocolate,” Appel says. “When the levels of these are higher, the insects walk away or just don’t start feeding.”
…It sounds absurd because it is, in part; Stewart’s so-called Second Livestock project is actually more of a social experiment than a genuine project aiming to bring virtual reality to farm flocks. He’s pitching it via a website with a deadpan seriousness that is fairly convincing, right down to the description of what are essentially high density livestock condominium complexes that purport to generate as little waste as possible by recycling waste and using animal body heat as the source for facility environment controls.
Stewart’s MO is to create tech-based projects that shed light on our relationship with gadgets and the world, however, and the way in which we can sometimes lean too heavily on tech in pursuit of relatively simple ends without stopping to consider how we might do it better without the bells and whistles. But in the end, the project isn’t designed to purely deride tech, its users or the people he claims to be selling to. Instead, Stewart hopes to spark discussion among even audiences that normally gloss over tech pitches about what we’re creating with digital environments.
Sonoluminescence¿the physical phenomenon by which sound turns into light¿is as mystifying as a magic trick. Despite 70 years of trying, scientists still cannot fully explain how a bubble of air in water focuses acoustic energy a trillionfold to spit out picosecond bursts of ultraviolet radiation. Initially physicists attributed the flashes to friction. In the late 1980s, though, they came to see that bubbles in a sound wave’s path expanded and rapidly collapsed¿heating the gas inside them to temperatures hotter than the sun’s surface. This collapse and heat, they determined, created a glowing plasma.
In this week’s issue of Physical Review Letters, Gary A. Williams and his colleagues from the University of California at Los Angeles present evidence that lends further support to that theory. The researchers set out to explain earlier observations that the spectra of light from a single bubble lacked an emission line¿for the molecule OH¿seen from multiple bubbles. Because of the discrepancy, some had suggested that different physical mechanisms were at work and that there were, in essence, two kinds of sonoluminescence. But Williams’s group proved that isn’t the case, creating larger-than-usual single bubbles whose spectra included the missing emission.
Although they don’t know why, the researchers say that bubble size alone seems to predict the OH line and suggest that, compared with smaller single bubbles that collapse symmetrically (top right), larger bubbles in multibubble systems are unstable (bottom right). The team further fitted the spectra to a blackbody radiation curve and showed that it corresponded to plasma at a temperature of about 8,000 degrees Kelvin. “It’s a nice connecting together of the underlying physical phenomena,” Ken Suslick of the University of Illinois in Urbana-Champaign toldPhysical Review Focus. “And the ability to recognize the OH emission line is pretty cool.”
Scientists Have Simulated Time Travel With Photons
June 20, 2014
Looks like time travel is possible… for particles of light.
Using a photon, physicists have managed to simulate quantum particles traveling through time. Studying the photon’s behavior could help scientists understand some inexplicable aspects of modern physics.
"The question of time travel features at the interface between two of our most successful yet incompatible physical theories — Einstein’s general relativity and quantum mechanics," University of Queensland’s Martin Ringbauer says in a news release. “Einstein’s theory describes the world at the very large scale of stars and galaxies, while quantum mechanics is an excellent description of the world at the very small scale of atoms and molecules.”
Time slows down or speeds up depending on how fast you move relative to another object. Einstein’s theory suggests the possibility of traveling backwards in time by following a space-time path that returns to the starting point in space — but at an earlier time. This is called a closed timelike curve (pictured above). It’s a traversable wormhole.
In a quantum regime, the authors say, the paradox of time travel can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. Near a black hole, for example, the extreme effects of general relativity play a role.
Pictured above, a space-time structure exhibiting closed paths in space (horizontal) and time (vertical). A quantum particle travels through a wormhole back in time and returns to the same location in space and time.
"The properties of quantum particles are ‘fuzzy’ or uncertain to start with, so this gives them enough wiggle room to avoid inconsistent time travel situations," UQ’s Tim Ralph explains. “Our study provides insights into where and how nature might behave differently from what our theories predict.” These include the violation of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, cracking of quantum cryptography, and perfect cloning of quantum states.
The work was published in Nature Communications this week.
A few months ago, we ran a story about Ft. Lauderdale, Florida’s war on its massive homeless population. The thrust of the article was this: The wealthy, people in positions of power don’t pay good good money to have their postcard illusions of reality spoiled by the unpleasantness of reality itself. There’s a certain conceit in the minds of the wealthy and powerful that says “I live in this sphere of existence, you live in that one, and never the twain shall meet. What happens to you does not affect me.” That’s true if you’re talking about rich tourists in Florida, communist dictators having trees painted green, or concrete and metal spikes created to impale the homeless.
Today, we bring you pictures from two seemingly very different places: An upscale townhouse apartment building in London, and the underside of a bridge in China. But both of these places have something in common: They were, shall we say, “modified” by unnamed persons to keep the unfortunate out of sight of the rich and powerful.
“We can form a memory, erase that memory and we can reactivate it, at will, by applying a stimulus that selectively strengthens or weakens synaptic connections,” study senior researcher Dr. Roberto Malinow, a professor of neurosciences said in a university press release.